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China Buying U.S. Computers, Raising Fears of Enhanced Nuclear Weapons
  WASHINGTON -- Since President Clinton deregulated the export of 
computers in 1995, China has gone on a shopping spree, buying 46 
American-made supercomputers and many more that are nearly as 
powerful, according to government officials.
  The newly acquired computers could be used by the Chinese to design 
more efficient or lighter nuclear warheads that could be put on 
missiles capable of reaching the United States, American intelligence 
officials and nuclear experts said.
  Several officials said they have suspicions -- but no direct 
evidence -- that China is using the powerful computers for this 
  Clinton administration officials who defend the 1995 policy said 
they believe that the civilian purchasers in China are making sure 
the equipment is not diverted to military uses.
  Gary Samore, the senior director for nonproliferation and export 
control at the National Security Council, said: "We don't have any 
information that these computers are being used by the Chinese for 
military purposes, including nuclear weapons."
  At the same time, Samore said, there were no formal military or 
intelligence investigations of that question. The government's 
knowledge, he said, was drawn largely from the computer companies.
  There are disagreements among American officials about the 
importance of the Chinese purchases of supercomputers. But Gary 
Milhollin, a nuclear expert in the private sector, said of the 46 
supercomputers: "For the first time these give China access to a 
larger number of computers in this range, and that's a big jump for 
the Chinese."
  The supercomputers sold to China would allow the country to 
significantly improve its nuclear weapons by processing huge amounts 
of data from very small underground nuclear weapons tests. These 
tests are currently banned by international treaty but the high-
performance computers would allow the Chinese to conduct weapons 
tests with explosions so small that they would be undetectable by 
outsiders, said American government officials who requested anonymity.
  Under the 1995 policy, most supercomputers sold for civilian 
purposes do not need to be licensed for export by the federal 
government. Exporters consequently cannot be required to track how 
they are used.
  The disclosure earlier this year that American companies had sold 
supercomputers to two Russian nuclear facilities prompted Congress to 
ask for an accounting of how many had been sold to other countries.
  At the time, the Republican chairman and the ranking Democrat on 
the House National Security Committee asked the president to "refrain 
from further" deregulation of supercomputer exports and to reassess 
the national security risks of allowing exporters to decide who may 
buy supercomputers.
  "We think many of the supercomputers sold to China are being 
integrated into the military weapons development area in a way that 
is going to make their weapons more sophisticated and lethal and this 
could jeopardize our own national security interests," said Sen. Thad 
Cochran, R-Miss., chairman of a Senate subcommittee overseeing the 
  Clinton administration officials said on Monday they were satisfied 
with deregulation. They argued that it would be nearly impossible for 
the United States to effectively prevent the Chinese from obtaining 
these computers from other sources.
  The Commerce Department has been investigating last year's sale by 
Silicon Graphics of a supercomputer that performs almost 6 billion 
operations per second, operating at 10 times the speed of the fastest 
personal computer, to a Chinese science academy. The company says the 
buyer is a benign civilian institution, but according to nuclear 
experts, the academy has other functions, including helping China 
develop long range missiles. The Justice Department is also 
investigating another Silicon Graphics supercomputer sale in 1996, to 
a Russian research institute that also serves as a nuclear weapons 
laboratory, the officials also said.
  "One reason I ran for president was to tailor export controls to 
the realities of a post-Cold War world," Clinton wrote in a September 
1993 letter to Edward McCracken, the chief executive officer of 
Silicon Graphics.
  In his 1992 campaign, Clinton received important political support 
from executives of high-technology companies, including McCracken.
  Shortly after the president's 1993 letter, the administration took 
its first steps toward decontrol. In October 1995, Clinton announced 
that he would relax export controls on all but the most powerful 
supercomputers to help American companies compete abroad, saying the 
system would "adjust to the global spread of technology while 
preserving our vital national security interests."
  But by eliminating the need for licenses on most computer exports, 
the president shifted some national security responsibilities -- 
avoiding the misuse of sensitive technology -- from the government to 
the computer industry.
  The undersecretary of commerce for export administration, William 
Reinsch, said the department was investigating some cases of 
unlicensed export of supercomputers to China and Russia, which could 
uncover more information about how the computers are being used. But 
he insisted the relaxation of controls was a realistic solution since 
rapid changes in the flexibility and availability of computer 
technology make it easy for purchasers to circumvent controls.
  "Where do you draw the line to be absolutely certain that no one in 
China has a supercomputer? The only way is to insist on validated 
licenses on all computers and then deny them," Reinsch said.
  Another obstacle was thrown up when diplomatic and intelligence 
officials, wanting to protect their sources, refused to allow the 
Commerce Department to publish a list of buyers suspected of nuclear 
activity, according to Reinsch. Then earlier this year, 16 months 
after the White House promised that the Commerce Department would 
keep manufacturers informed of nuclear proliferation risks, the 
department publicly disclosed one name of a suspected nuclear 
facility -- an Israeli university.
  Reinsch says more names will be disclosed soon, a move industry 
officials say they favor.
  Robert Rarog, a spokesman for Digital Equipment Corp., which has 
sold supercomputers to China, said his company feels the deregulation 
"basically works" but that "the government has to step up to the 
plate" and disclose questionable buyers "to level the playing field 
for U.S. companies" who compete with foreign manufacturers that may 
be less diligent.
  In early 1996, government nuclear experts asked the Commerce 
Department to provide supercomputer manufacturers with a list of 
sensitive nuclear sites in Russia and China to prevent misuse of 
their technology, but the administration turned down the request, 
according to Milhollin, the director of the Wisconsin Project on 
Nuclear Arms Control. A Department of Energy spokesman confirmed 
Milhollin's account.
  In an interview, Milhollin compared the relaxation of export 
controls to the 1980s deregulation of the savings and loan industry.
  "The decision to decontrol supercomputers, without adequate 
safeguards was the equivalent to the deregulation of the savings and 
loans -- the industry benefited but the public welfare and security 
was sacrificed."
  A Senate subcommittee headed by Cochran will hold a hearing on the 
deregulation issue on Wednesday.
Copyright 1997 The New York Times

THE SUPERCOMPUTERS OF COMMUNIST CHINA by Gene Crocker, Ph.D. "I would not have been re-elected without the campaign contributions." President W.J. Clinton "Be careful of what you wish, you may get it." Chinese Proverb The ELINT (intelligence gathering) Trawler Fleet of Communist China flies the flag of the China Ocean Shipping Company (Cosco). They gather information by monitoring US military communications and our weather conditions and relay that information back to PLA intelligence. After the US communications are decrypted, some of the information is used by their submarines who prowl the US coastline. In 1996, when Communist China threatened to nuke Los Angeles, I assumed that it would be a missile from one of these submarines. I was wrong, those missiles can come from the Chinese Communist mainland and be delivered accurately to your doorstep~because of the actions of American multinational corporations and President Clinton. Communist China obtains US top secrets in a number of ways. We give it to them. There are 40,000 to 50,000 chinese communist students and scholars at Universities and Research Centers in the US. They steal it. There are an estimated 1000 US businesses that are fronts for the spies of Communist China. And they buy it. When the PLA want something that is restricted, they have representatives from a Chinese Communist Corporation go to the manufacturer and tell them they want to buy their supercomputers, or gallium arsenide computer chips or whatever high tech "controlled" item they want. The business then makes a large campaign contribution(s) to friendly but needy US politicians and somehow the laws for national security get "relaxed". Certain businesses in Silicon Valley, like Silicon Graphics and Hewlett Packard, were big financial contributors to Clinton's presidential campaigns. They make supercomputers and they wanted the export restrictions on them "relaxed". Supercomputers are not generally used in business. But they are absolutely invaluable in two areas, nuclear weapons research and in weather modeling for intercontinental missiles. Modern nuclear weapons designed on supercomputers will work perfectly without testing. It is great for the environment. It is even better for countries like Communist China who want to keep their nuclear weapons program covert. Weather modeling is used to predict the weather conditions in target areas so that the missile guidance systems can make the necessary weather adjustments. During Clinton's administration, Communist China has bought and shipped 46 supercomputers from Silicon Graphics, Hewlett Packard, Sun Microsystems and other US manufacturers. William Reinsch, Undersecretary of Clinton's Commerce Department (Export Administration) confirmed the sales and shipping of these supercomputers and stated that the Dept. of Commerce has no idea of their present location in Communist China, in his testimony at the House National Security Subcommittee on April 15, 1997. Global Positioning Systems (GPS) are those small satellite receivers used in boats and cars and military vehicles for guidance and navigation purposes. The highly accurate versions used in the Gulf War were designed to guide cruise and other missiles. Donald Beale, President of Rockwell International announced in November 1996 that it has formed a join venture with Shanghai Avionics Corporation and the Shanghai Broadcast Equipment Factory to build GPS systems in Communist China. "We see China (Communist) as a driver in our plans to double the size of business in Asia Pacific" said Beale. The restrictions on GPS have been "relaxed" by Clinton's Commerce Department during his first term of office. We elect unprincipled politicians whose main drive is for continued power. The CEO's of high tech multinational corporations have given massive campaign contributions to those politicians; the net effect is to almost destroy our national security. All these high tech companies wanted was a little "relaxing" of the national security export restrictions, so they could make a buck. They got what they wanted. What did we get? What will we get from Communist China? Dr. Crocker has a Ph.D. in Physics, a Nuclear Engineering, a B.S. in Civil Engineering and a B.A. in Philosophy. His articles include "Treason at Long Beach", "The Manchurean President", and "Who Are You Calling Hero".